Gestational Trophoblastic Disease Spectrum: Case Report and Anaesthetic Implications

Vol 6 | Issue 3 | September-December 2020 | Page 27-32 | Vennila Rajagopal


Author: Vennila Rajagopal [1]

[1] Department of Anaesthesia, Apollo Womens Hospital, Chennai, Tamilnadu, India.

Address of Correspondence
Dr. Vennila Rajagopal,
Consultant Anaesthesiology and HDU services, Apollo womens Hospital, Chennai, Tamilnadu, India.
E-mail: drrvennila@gmail.com


Gestational Trophoblastic Disease Spectrum: Case Report and Anaesthetic Implications


Abstract

Gestational Trophoblastic Disease (GTD) is a spectrum of tumours with abnormal placental trophoblastic proliferation. They can be benign or malignant lesions. When they invade locally or metastasise, they are called Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasia (GTN). Clinically, women present with history of amenorrhoea, abdominal pain, mild to severe vaginal bleed with or without symptoms due to metastases. Based on the organ of metastasis, symptoms may vary from breathlessness and cough with chest involvement to lethargy, loss of memory or seizures with brain metastasis. This entity ranges from pre-malignant conditions like hydatidiform mole and partial hydatidiform mole to neoplastic invasive mole, choriocarcinoma or rare type of epitheloid trophoblastic tumour. [1,2] Undetected hyperthyroidism can complicate GTD and present with potential significant complications like cardiac failure and arrhythmias. Manifestations of the disease are attributed to excess secretion of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) that has thyrotrophic activity due to its structural similarity. [3,4] The incidence reported in Asian population is as high as 1:400, three times higher. In majority of cases, early diagnosis and treatment provide complete cure in GTD. In 20%, even locally invasive disease, with or without metastasis can be life threatening. [5] Surgical removal is the definitive treatment. Peri-operative anaesthetic management of patients with multiple system involvement as a result of extensive disease can be challenging, hence from anaesthetic perspective it is essential to understand the pathophysiology, clinical presentations and potential complications of molar pregnancy. We hereby report successful management of two cases presenting at different areas of the disease spectrum.
Keywords: Molar pregnancy; Choriocarcinoma; Tropoblastic disease.


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How to Cite this Article: Rajagopal V | Gestational Trophoblastic Disease Spectrum: Case Report and Anaesthetic Implications | Journal of Anaesthesia and Critical Care Case Reports | September-December
2020; 6(3): 27-32.

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